Immunosuppressive effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (Review)
Affiliations: Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience and Sensory Organs, University of Bari Medical School, I-70124 Bari, Italy
- Published online on: September 1, 2022 https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2022.13489
Copyright: © Ribatti
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Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) serves a critical role in vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, tumor, inflammatory angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Since 2004, bevacizumab (Avastin), a humanized anti‑VEGFA monoclonal antibody, has been approved for the treatment of non‑small cell lung, breast, kidney and ovarian cancer in combination with standard chemotherapy. VEGF has been demonstrated to be important in the clinic as a therapeutic target in the anti‑angiogenic approach to cancer therapy. The targeting of VEGF, together with immunotherapy, has been reported to be able to reverse the immunosuppressive effects of VEGF. A positive correlation between VEGF expression and the reduced survival rates of patients with cancer has also been demonstrated. Furthermore, increased VEGF expression can lead to immune suppression via the inhibition of dendritic cell maturation, the reduction of T‑cell tumor infiltration and the promotion of inhibitory cell types in the tumor microenvironment.