Trichostatin A induces bladder cancer cell death via intrinsic apoptosis at the early phase and Sp1‑survivin downregulation at the late phase of treatment
- Shou-Chieh Wang
- Shou-Tsung Wang
- Hung-Te Liu
- Xiang-Yu Wang
- She-Ching Wu
- Lei-Chin Chen
- Yi-Wen Liu
Affiliations: Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kuang Tien General Hospital, Taichung 433, Taiwan, R.O.C., Department of Food Science, Immunology and Biopharmaceuticals, National Chiayi University, Chiayi 600, Taiwan, R.O.C., Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biopharmaceuticals, National Chiayi University, Chiayi 600, Taiwan, R.O.C., Department of Nutrition, I-Shou University, Jiaosu Village, Yanchao District, Kaohsiung 82445, Taiwan, R.O.C.
- Published online on: July 6, 2017 https://doi.org/10.3892/or.2017.5795
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Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been widely shown to result in cancer cell death. The present study investigated the mechanisms underlying the antitumor effects of the phytochemical trichostatin A (TSA), a classic pan-HDAC inhibitor, in 5,637 urinary bladder cancer cells. It was found that TSA caused cell cycle arrest at the G2/M and G1 phase accompanied by reduced expression of cyclin D1 and upregulated induction of p21. In addition, TSA induced morphological changes, reduced cell viability and apoptotic cell death in 5,637 cells through caspase-3 activation followed by PARP cleavage. The loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) indicated that TSA induced apoptosis in 5,637 cells through the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. TSA significantly suppressed Akt activity at 12 h after treatment, suggesting that the apoptosis in the early phase was mediated by Akt inhibition. In addition, the protein level of transcription factor Sp1 was decreased at 24 h after TSA treatment, which likely led to the downregulation of survivin gene expression, and then contributed to the antitumor activity of TSA. Taken together, the present study delineated that TSA-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in 5,637 cells was associated with pAKT inhibition and MMP loss at the early phase, followed by downregulation of Sp1 and survivin at the late phase of treatment.