Open Access

Inhibitory mechanism of muscone in liver cancer involves the induction of apoptosis and autophagy

  • Authors:
    • Wenchuan Qi
    • Zhenhua Li
    • Chunlan Yang
    • Jiangshan Jiangshan Dai
    • Qiao Zhang
    • Di Wang
    • Chuanfang Wu
    • Longjiang Xia
    • Si Xu
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: January 29, 2020     https://doi.org/10.3892/or.2020.7484
  • Pages: 839-850
  • Copyright: © Qi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

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Abstract

Traditionally, musk has been used as an analgesic to treat pain associated with cancer. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive tumor; however, patients with liver cancer that received musk were reported to live longer and have a higher quality of life. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate whether muscone, a macrocyclic compound of musk, demonstrated potential as an anti‑liver cancer drug for the non‑surgical treatment of advanced liver cancer. Briefly, liver cancer cells were treated with muscone and the rates of cellular apoptosis and autophagy were investigated using staining techniques and western blotting. The underlying molecular mechanisms of muscone were evaluated using high‑throughput sequencing and the in vitro effects of muscone were subsequently validated in vivo using a nude mouse model. Muscone increased the rates of apoptosis and autophagy in liver cancer cells; the increase in cellular apoptosis was observed to occur through endoplasmic reticulum stress responses, whereas muscone‑induced autophagy was closely associated with the AMP kinase/mTOR complex 1 signaling pathway. These findings were verified in vivo. Notably, sestrin‑2 expression levels were also significantly decreased in liver cancer tissues compared with paracancerous tissues. In conclusion, the present study suggests that muscone demonstrates potential as an anticancer drug, and the findings of the present study provide the basis for the development of effective anticancer drugs derived from natural compounds.

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March 2020
Volume 43 Issue 3

Print ISSN: 1021-335X
Online ISSN:1791-2431

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APA
Qi, W., Li, Z., Yang, C., Jiangshan Dai, J., Zhang, Q., Wang, D. ... Xu, S. (2020). Inhibitory mechanism of muscone in liver cancer involves the induction of apoptosis and autophagy. Oncology Reports, 43, 839-850. https://doi.org/10.3892/or.2020.7484
MLA
Qi, W., Li, Z., Yang, C., Jiangshan Dai, J., Zhang, Q., Wang, D., Wu, C., Xia, L., Xu, S."Inhibitory mechanism of muscone in liver cancer involves the induction of apoptosis and autophagy". Oncology Reports 43.3 (2020): 839-850.
Chicago
Qi, W., Li, Z., Yang, C., Jiangshan Dai, J., Zhang, Q., Wang, D., Wu, C., Xia, L., Xu, S."Inhibitory mechanism of muscone in liver cancer involves the induction of apoptosis and autophagy". Oncology Reports 43, no. 3 (2020): 839-850. https://doi.org/10.3892/or.2020.7484