κ‑opioid receptor agonists may alleviate intestinal damage in cardiopulmonary bypass rats by inhibiting the NF‑κB/HIF‑1α pathway
- Xiaoyan Zhang
- Yingjie Sun
- Dandan Song
- Yugang Diao
Affiliations: Postgraduate Training Base of The General Hospital of Northern Theater Command, Jinzhou Medical University, Jinzhou, Liaoning 121013, P.R. China, Department of Anesthesia, The General Hospital of Northern Theater Command, Shenyang, Liaoning 110016, P.R. China
- Published online on: April 23, 2020 https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2020.8685
Copyright: © Zhang
et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
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The aims of the present study were to investigate the protective effect of a κ-opioid receptor (KOR) agonist on intestinal barrier dysfunction in rats during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), as well as to examine the role of NF‑κB and the transcription factor hypoxia‑inducible factor‑1α (HIF‑1α) signaling pathway in the regulatory mechanism. A total of 50 rats were randomly divided into five groups, with 10 rats in each group: Sham surgery group (group Sham), CPB surgery group (group CPB), KOR agonist + CPB (group K), KOR agonist + specific KOR antagonist + CBP (group NK) and KOR agonist + NF‑κB pathway specific inhibitor + CPB (group NF). Intestinal microcirculation was evaluated to determine intestinal barrier dysfunction in rats following CPB surgery. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was used to observe intestinal tissue injury in the rats. ELISA was used to detect the inflammatory factors interleukin (IL)‑1β, IL‑6, IL10 and tumor necrosis factor‑α, and the oxidative stress factors superoxidase dismutase, malondialdehyde and nitric oxide in serum. In addition, ELISA was used to investigate the serum levels of the intestinal damage markers D‑lactic acid, diamine oxidase and intestinal fatty acid‑binding protein. Western blotting was used to investigate the protein expression levels of tight junction proteins zonula occludens‑1 and claudin‑1. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry was used to examine intestinal injuries and western blotting was used to detect expression levels of NF‑κB/HIF‑1α signaling pathway‑related proteins. H&E staining results suggested that the KOR agonist alleviated intestinal damage in the CPB model rats. This effect was reversed by the addition of a KOR antagonist. Further investigation of inflammatory and oxidative stress factors using ELISA revealed that the KOR agonist reduced the inflammatory and oxidative stress responses in the intestinal tissues of the CPB model rats. The ELISA results of intestinal damage markers and western blotting results of tight junction protein expression suggested that KOR agonist treatment may alleviate intestinal injury in CPB model rats. In addition, the western blotting and immunohistochemistry results suggested that KOR agonists may decrease the expression levels of NF‑κB, p65 and HIF‑1α in CPB. Collectively, the present results suggested that KOR agonists are able to ameliorate the intestinal barrier dysfunction in rats undergoing CPB by inhibiting the expression levels of NF‑κB/HIF‑1α signaling pathway‑related proteins.