AREL1 E3 ubiquitin ligase inhibits TNF‑induced necroptosis via the ubiquitination of MTX2
- Yongsam Jo
- Byeongmo Kim
- Deug Y. Shin
Affiliations: Department of Microbiology, Dankook University College of Medicine, Cheonan, South Chungcheong 31116, Republic of Korea
- Published online on: August 20, 2021 https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10629
Copyright: © Jo
et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
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Previously, we reported on a novel anti‑apoptotic E3 ubiquitin ligase, apoptosis‑resistant E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 (AREL1), that ubiquitinates inhibitors of apoptosis proteins antagonists. The present study demonstrated that AREL1 ubiquitinated Metaxin 2 (MTX2), which was involved in TNF‑induced necroptosis. MTX2 has been identified as a protein that belongs to the Metaxin family. It interacts with another Metaxin protein, Metaxin 1 (MTX1), which is localized in the outer membrane of mitochondria, and is involved in TNF‑induced necroptosis. This study found that AREL1 interacted with MTX2, but not MTX1, while the amino‑terminal domain of MTX2 interacted with MTX1, AREL1 interacted with the carboxyl‑terminal domain of MTX2. Furthermore, AREL1 expression led to a decrease in the protein expression of MTX2, but not MTX1. However, a mutant form of AREL1, AREL1C790A, which is deficient for E3 activity, did not cause MTX2 degradation. Moreover, the protein levels of MTX2 were increased by AREL1 knockdown. Therefore, these results implied that AREL1 ubiquitinates and promotes the degradation of MTX2. The expression of MTX2, together with MTX1, enhanced TNF‑induced necroptosis. However, AREL1 inhibited necroptosis even in cells expressing Metaxin proteins. Therefore, these results suggested that the inhibition of AREL1‑dependent ubiquitination of MTX2 could be beneficial to sensitize tumor cells to TNF‑induced necroptosis.