Docosahexaenoic acid improves altered mineralization proteins, the decreased quality of hydroxyapatite crystals and suppresses oxidative stress induced by high glucose
- Saúl Ernesto Cifuentes‑Mendiola
- Leticia Moreno‑Fierros
- Patricia González‑Alva
- Ana Lilia García‑Hernández
Affiliations: Laboratory of Dental Research, Section of Osteoimmunology and Oral Immunology, FES Iztacala, National Autonomous University of Mexico, San Sebastián Xhala, Cuautitlán Izcalli 54714, Mexico, Laboratory of Mucosal Immunity, FES Iztacala, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Los Reyes Iztacala, Tlalnepantla 54090, Mexico, Laboratory of Tissue Bioengineering, Dentistry Faculty, National Autonomous University of Mexico, University City, Mexico City 04510, Mexico
- Published online on: January 21, 2022 https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2022.11160
Copyright: © Cifuentes‑Mendiola
et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
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Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) experience an increased risk of fractures and a variety of bone pathologies, such as osteoporosis. The suggested mechanisms of increased fracture risk in DM2 include chronic hyperglycaemia, which provokes oxidative stress, alters bone matrix, and decreases the quality of hydroxyapatite crystals. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega‑3 fatty acid, can increase bone formation, reduce bone loss, and it possesses antioxidant/anti‑inflammatory properties. The present study aimed to determine the effect of DHA on altered osteoblast mineralisation and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by high glucose concentrations. A human osteoblast cell line was treated with 5.5 mM glucose (NG) or 24 mM glucose (HG), alone or in combination with 10 or 20 µM DHA. The collagen type 1 (Col1) scaffold, the expression of osteocalcin (OCN) and bone sialoprotein type‑II (BSP‑II), the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) specific activity, the mineral quality, the production of ROS and the mRNA expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2‑related factor‑2 (NRF2) were analysed. Osteoblasts cultured in HG and treated with either DHA concentration displayed an improved distribution of the Col1 scaffold, increased OCN and BSP‑II expression, increased NRF2 mRNA, decreased ALP activity, carbonate substitution and reduced ROS production compared with osteoblasts cultured in HG alone. DHA counteracts the adverse effects of HG on bone mineral matrix quality and reduces oxidative stress, possibly by increasing the expression of NRF2.