Increased expression of microRNA-338-3p contributes to production of Dsg3 antibody in pemphigus vulgaris patients

  • Authors:
    • Qingxiu Liu
    • Feiyi Cui
    • Menglei Wang
    • Hao Xiong
    • Xiaoming Peng
    • Liuping Liang
    • Li Li
    • Jing Zhang
    • Xuebiao Peng
    • Kang Zeng
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: April 26, 2018     https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2018.8934
  • Pages: 550-556
Metrics: Total Views: 0 (Spandidos Publications: | PMC Statistics: )
Total PDF Downloads: 0 (Spandidos Publications: | PMC Statistics: )


Abstract

Expression of microRNA-338-3p (miR-338-3p) was aberrantly elevated in pemphigus vulgaris (PV), although its role in PV is still unknown. The present study investigated the functional role and possible molecular mechanisms of miR-338-3p in PV. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was performed to detect miR-338-3p expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with PV. Correlation with disease severity and anti-desmoglein 3 antibody (anti-Dsg3) titers were analyzed in patients with PV. The effects of overexpression and knockdown of miR-338-3p expression in PBMCs and effects on Th1 and Th2 cytokines were also examined using ELISA. The luciferase reporter analysis, RT-qPCR and western blot analysis were applied to investigate potential and functional target genes. The data showed that miR-338-3p expression was significantly upregulated in PV and the upregulation of miR-338-3p associated with disease severity and a high anti-Dsg3 antibody titer. Expression of miR-338-3p/mimic in healthy PBMCs significantly downregulated Th1 cytokine (IFN-γ) and upregulated Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10), whereas knockdown of miR-338-3p expression in PBMCs from patients with PV induced the reverse effects. Overexpression of miR-338-3p suppressed cell viability. Luciferase reporter, RT-qPCR and western blot assays idnicated that TNFR1-associated death domain protein (TRADD) was the direct and functional target of miR-338-3p. Increased expression of miR-338-3p contributed to the production of Dsg3 antibody by inhibiting TRADD expression to induce an imbalance in Th1/Th2 cell functions. Taken together, this study suggests that miR-338-3p may be used as a potential therapeutic target for PV treatment.

Introduction

Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a bullous skin disease mediated by autoantibodies, primarily desmoglein (Dsg) 3 or/and Dsg1 antibodies, and is considered a Th2 cell predominant autoimmune disease. The balance of Th1/Th2 cells in the peripheral blood plays an important role in the PV immunopathogenesis (1). It has been widely demonstrated that levels of Th1 cells and Th1 cytokines (interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), IL-2) are decreased, whereas levels of Th2 cells and Th2-type cytokines (IL-4, IL-10) are significantly increased in the peripheral blood of PV patients (2,3). The mean frequency of Th2 CD4+ T cells significantly elevates in active disease (2). In contrast, Th1 cells show decreased levels in the acute stages of PV (1). Titers of Dsg3-reactive IgG are directly related to the ratio of autoreactive Th1/Th2 cells (1). Altogether, these results suggest that the onset and extent of disease are related to an imbalance of Th1/Th2 cells. However, to date, the exact mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon remain unclear.

Currently, numerous studies have demonstrated that altered expression of miRNAs also play roles in various autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis (4), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (5), rheumatoid arthritis (6), and psoriasis (7). miRNAs are non-coding RNAs and their aberrant expression is involved in various cellular processes, including differentiation, apoptosis and immune response, by suppressing target gene expression. However, it is no report whether miRNAs also play a role in PV. Previously, we demonstrated that there were 124 miRNAs aberrantly expressed in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from PV patients after miRNA array analysis (8). miR-338-3p has been listed as one of the most significantly increased miRNAs with more than a 500-fold change between PV patients and healthy control samples. As reported, miR-338-3p was considered as a tumor-suppressor and showed to play a role in various diseases, including nasopharyngeal (9), non-small cell lung (10) and hepatocellular carcinoma (11), gastric cancer (12) and breast cancer (13), and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (14). miR-338-3p also contributed to formation of basolateral polarity in epithelial cells (15) as well as differentiation of odontoblasts (16) and oligodendrocytes (17). In addition, decreased expression of miR-338-3p was shown to increase expression of innate and adaptive immune proteins in celiac disease (18). Thus, miR-338-3p can not only regulate differentiation and apoptosis, but also possess immunomodulatory functions. In PV, however, the impact of the increased expression of miR-338-3p remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-338-3p in PV and the immune response.

Materials and methods

Patients and peripheral blood samples

This study was approved by Research Center Ethics Committee, Nanfang Hospital, The Southern Medical University (Guangzhou, China) and the informed consent was obtained from all participants. PV patients were recruited from Nanfang Hospital and only new-onset patients or recurrent patients without immunosuppressant and steroid hormone treatment for at least three months were included in this study. Peripheral blood samples were collected using EDTA anticoagulant tubes when patients were admitted to our hospital. PBMCs from freshly drawn blood of patients and healthy volunteers were purified by gradient centrifugation with Ficoll-Paque Plus, and collected for RNA isolation or transfection experiments.

RNA isolation, cDNA synthesis and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR)

RNA was isolated from PBMCs using TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) and reversely transcribed into cDNA using All-in-One First-Strand cDNA Synthesis kit (GeneCopoeia Inc., Germantown, MD, USA). qRT-PCR was performed with primers specific for miR-338-3p or TNFR1-associated death domain protein (TRADD) (Table I). 18srRNA and U6 gene regions were used as controls. The qPCR was run on an ABI PRISM® 7500 Sequence Detection System using SYBR-Green PCR Master Mix (Toyobo Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan). The ΔΔCt method was used to normalize transcripts to 18srRNA and U6 and to calibrate the fold changes.

Table I.

Polymerase chain reaction primers used in this study.

Table I.

Polymerase chain reaction primers used in this study.

miR-338-3pRT primer 5′-GTCGTATCCAGTGCAGGGTCCGAGGTATTCGCACTGGATACGACCAACAA-3′
Forward 5′-GTCAGTTCCAGCATCAGTGATT-3′
Reverse 5′-GTGCAGGGTCCGAGGT-3′
TRADDForward 5′-GGACCCTGAAACTCCACTTG-3′
Reverse 5′-GATGAAGTCCAGGACACCAA-3′

[i] miR, microRNA; TRADD, TNFR1-associated death domain protein.

Transfection of miRNA into PBMCs

Oligonucleotides of miR-338-3p mimics, miR-338-3p inhibitors, and negative control (NC or inhibitor NC) were synthesized by RiboBio (Shanghai, China). For their transfection, purified PBMCs were suspended in Opti-MEM (Invitrogen) and then transfected with 50 nM of miR-338-3p mimics, miR-338-3p inhibitors or negative control oligonucleotides using Lipofectamine™ RNAiMAX (Invitrogen) for 4 h and after that, the medium was replaced with RPMI-1640 (HyClone, Logan, UT, USA). Transfected cells were harvested at different time points for analysis. Each transfection experiment was carried out in triplicate.

ELISA detection of cytokine levels

The blood samples were centrifuged for 5 min at 2,000 rpm, and the serum was saved for anti-Dsg3 antibody detection using MESACUP Desmoglein TEST ‘Dsg3’ (Medical and Biological Laboratories, Nagano-ken, Japan). In addition, 72 h after gene transfection, PBMC culture medium was collected for detection of T-type cytokines and levels of IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 were also measured by ELISA according to the instructions of manufacture of human ELISA Kits (RayBiotech, Norcross GA, USA).

Cell viability CCK-8 assay

Transfected cells were seeded into 96-well plates at 1×104 cells/well and grown for 0, 24, 48 or 72 h, respectively. At the end of each experiment, 10 µl of CCK-8 solution (dilution 1:10; CCK-8; Beyotime Institute of Biotechnology, Shanghai, China) was added and incubated for 4 h. The optical density of each well was then measured at the wavelength of 450 nm (OD=450).

Identification of miRNA targets

The target genes of miR-338-3p were predicted using three microRNA target databases (MiRanda, PITA and TargetScan). The selected target genes were first validated by dual-luciferase assay and then confirmed using qRT-PCR and western blot assays.

Dual-luciferase assay

HEK293 cells were cultured in 24-well plates for a dual-luciferase reporter assay. Briefly, cells were co-transfected with 50 nM of miRNA or miRNA NC and 500 ng of wild or mutant type reporter plasmid (psi-CHECK2) using Lipofectamine 2000 reagent (Invitrogen). Forty-eight hours later, cells were harvested and lysed to measure Firefly and Renilla luciferase activities using the Dual-Glo Luciferase Reporter Assay Kit (Promega, Madison, WI, USA).

Western blotting

Cells were harvested and lysed for western blot analysis after 48 gene transfection. Total crude proteins were extracted from PBMC lysates and separated by 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) electrophoresis. Proteins were then electrophoretically transferred on to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes and the membranes were incubated with the rabbit monoclonal antibody against human TRADD at a dilution of 1:1,000 (Abcam, Cambridge, UK) at 4°C overnight followed by horseradish peroxidase-conjugated secondary Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG (1:5,000; Southern Biotech, Birmingham, AL, USA) for 1 h at the room temperature. The immuno-complexes were detected by chemiluminescence. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was used as a protein-loading control.

Statistical analysis

SPSS 21.0 software was used for all statistical analyses. The data were presented as means ± standard deviation (SD). Group comparisons were analyzed by Student's t-test or a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by LSD test. Pearson method was used to analyze the correlation between mikR-338-3p and PAAS or anti-Dsg3 antibody. A value of P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results

Association of elevated miR-338-3p expression with PV severity

In this study, we first analyzed level of miR-338-3p expression in PV vs. control sera using RT-qPCR. The results showed that the average level of miR-338-3p relative expression from PV patients was substantially higher than that from healthy controls (Fig. 1A). We also found that miR-338-3p levels positively correlated with Pemphigus Area and Activity Score (PAAS) (Fig. 1B) and anti-Dsg3 antibody titers (Fig. 1C). Seven initial cases and four recurrent cases were included and no significance was found with respect to sex and age (Table II).

Table II.

Baseline demographics and clinical characteristic of PV patients and healthy volunteers.

Table II.

Baseline demographics and clinical characteristic of PV patients and healthy volunteers.

CharacteristicPatients with PV (n=11)Healthy volunteers (n=11)P-value
Sex 0.68
  Female5 (45.5%)4 (36.4%)
  Male6 (54.5%)7 (63.6%)
Age, years 0.90
  Mean ± SD44.27±12.6543.64±11.35
  Median (range)42 (26–64)45 (28–65)
Disease stages
  Initial stage7 (63.6%)
  Recurrent stage4 (36.4%)
Anti-Dsg3 antibodies, mean ± SD,87.48±57.07, 103 (0.63–170.3)
PAAS, median (range), IQR
Cutaneous score3.6 (0.4–12.4), (1.2–5.95)
  Mucus membrane score6 (0–9), (0–6)
  Total scorea7.2 (0.4–12.4), (5.25–8.25)

{ label (or @symbol) needed for fn[@id='tfn2-mmr-18-01-0550'] } IQR (25th-75th percentiles).

a Total score is sum of cutaneous score and mucus membrane score. PV, pemphigus vulgaris; PAAS, pemphigus area and activity score; IQR, interquartile range.

Effect of miR-338-3p on regulation of Th1/Th2 cell functional balance in cultured cells

To ensure whether miR-338-3p was successfully upregulated or downregulated in cultured cells, the expression of miR-338-3p was detected by qRT-PCR after transfection with miR-338-3p mimics, miR-338-3p inhibitor or negative control oligonucleotides (Fig. 2A and a).

To examine the levels of T lymphocyte cytokines, we detected IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 by ELISA. miR-388-3p overexpression in cultured PBMCs from healthy individuals lead to significantly decreased levels of IFN-γ (Fig. 2B) and the Th2 cytokines, IL-4 and IL-10, were markedly increased (Fig. 2C and D). However, when miR-388-3p was inhibited in cultured PBMCs from patients, opposing findings were observed (Fig. 2b-d). Taken together, these results suggested that miR-338-3p could regulate the balance of Th1/Th2 cells in PV patients.

Effect of miR-338-3p on survival of the cultured cells

To the best of our knowledge, increased expression of miR-338-3p suppresses proliferation and differentiation in tumorigenesis. During in vitro culture, cell activity was markedly decreased after miR-338-3p mimic transfection. Cultured cells, with a significantly lower viability in miR-338-3p group, were also confirmed by CCK-8 analysis (Fig. 3). In summary, the overexpression of miR-338-3p could suppress the survival of PBMCs.

Identification of TRADD as a direct and functional target of miR-338-3p

Target genes of miR-338-3p were predicted through three databases (MiRanda, PITA and TargetScan), and TRADD, which regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis, was identified as a putative target. Mutation and wild type 3′UTR of TRADD were conducted in Dual-Glo luciferase reporter assay and the results of co-transfected of wt/mut 3′UTR with miRNAs demonstrated that miR-338-3p directly targeted TRADD (Fig. 4A and B).

miR-338-3p directly targets TRADD in PV

The changes of TRADD protein expression were detected when miR-338-3p was overexpressed in vitro. The levels of TRADD mRNA and protein were found to be significantly lower in the miR-338-3p group compared with PBMC group and control group (Fig. 4C-E). We also examined the expression of TRADD in vivo. We found that mRNA expression of TRADD was decreased in PV patients when miR-338-3p was overexpressed (Fig. 4F). Altogether, these findings suggested that miR-338-3p directly targets TRADD in PV.

Discussion

PV is an intractable autoimmune bullous disease, and the mechanism of the main pathogenic antibody Dsg3, remains elusive. As mentioned earlier, miR-338-3p has been previously suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of PV. Firstly, increased miR-338-3p expression in PV compared to controls was demonstrated (Fig. 1A). In addition, the expression of miR-338-3p showed a significant positive correlation with PAAS scores (Fig. 1B) and anti-Dsg3 antibody titers (Fig. 1C), which are known to be positively associated with disease extent in PV. Hence, we speculated that miR-338-3p may play a role in the synthesis of Dsg3 antibody.

To study the functions of miR-338-3p in the production of Dsg3 antibody, the experiments of miR-338-3p overexpressed in healthy PBMCs and inhibited in PV PBMCs were conducted, respectively. Results showed that increased expression of miR-338-3p downregulated IFN-γ production, and upregulated IL-4 and IL-10 (Fig. 2b-d). However, opposing findings were demonstrated when miR-338-3p was inhibited in PV PBMCs (Fig. 2b-d). These results imply that altered expression of miR-338-3p may be a trigger factor in the imbalance of Th1/Th2 cells in autoimmunity. As previously demonstrated, IFN-γ insufficiency and over secretion of IL-4 and IL-10, usually representing the altered proportion of Th1 and Th2 respectively, has been confirmed in peripheral blood of patients with PV (13). The balance of Th1/Th2 cells in an immune response plays a pivotal regulative role in the production of Dsg3 antibody, though it is directly secreted by B cells (19). Taken together, elevated expression of miR-338-3p contributes to the production of Dsg3 antibody by mediating an abnormal balance of Th1/Th2 cells in PV.

miRNA-338-3p is known to be a suppressor in tumor cell proliferation. In miR-338-3p overexpression experiments, the declined cultured cell activity was observed in miR-338-3p group (Fig. 3), suggesting that increased expression of miR-338-3p suppressed in vitro survival. The imbalance of Th1/Th2 cells in PV may result from an unbalanced inhibition by elevated miR-338-3p between Th1 and Th2 cells. However, miR-338-3p cannot directly mediate cell proliferation or apoptosis. Thus, the potential and functional target genes of miR-338-3p were further predicted through three databases (MiRanda, PITA and TargetScan), and TRADD was identified as a putative target (Fig. 4A and b). TRADD was initially identified as an adaptor molecule, transducing the signal downstream of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) that induces either apoptosis or proliferation (20). The death domain of TRADD can recruit FADD or RIP, interacting with TRAF2, leading to apoptosis or the activation of NF-κB pathway protecting against cell death. TRADD is the key transduction molecule for apoptosis or proliferation, but may not be required for the induction of TNF-induced apoptosis (21). It may play a protective role against apoptosis in TRAIL/TRAIL-R signaling (22). In addition, TRADD contributes to the formation of the membrane survival TRADD-RIP1-TRAF2 complex I leading to proliferation. As a result, insufficiency of TRADD induces apoptosis but not proliferation (23). In miR-338-3p overexpression in vitro expression, we observed that the mRNA and protein expression of TRADD was significantly downregulated in response to miR-338-3p overexpression (Fig. 4C-E). In addition, mRNA expression of TRADD was also downregulated in PV patients in vivo (Fig. 4F). These results imply that increased miR-338-3p regulates the imbalance of Th1/Th2 cells by directly suppressing the function of TRADD.

In conclusion, we found that miR-338-3p was significantly elevated in PV patients and positively correlated with disease severity. Increased expression of miR-338-3p contributed to the production of Dsg3 antibody by inhibiting the expression of TRADD to induce an imbalance of Th1/Th2 cells. Taken together, we, for the first time, revealed the novel mechanism of miR-338-3p to further the understanding of the pathogenesis of PV.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported in part by a grant from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant no. 81171627).

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Glossary

Abbreviations

Abbreviations:

PV

pemphigus vulgaris

PBMC

peripheral blood mononuclear cell

Th

T helper cells

IFN-γ

interferon-gamma

IL

interleukin

TRADD

TNFR1-associated death domain protein

NC

negative control

RT-qPCR

reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction

Dsg

desmoglein

miRNA

microRNA

CCK-8

Cell-Counting Kit-8 assay

PVDF

polyvinylidene fluoride

ANOVA

one-way analysis of variance

PAAS

pemphigus area and activity score

GAPDH

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase

TRAF2

TNF receptor-associated factor 2

TNFR1

tumor necrosis factor receptor 1

References

1 

Hertl M and Veldman C: T-cellular autoimmunity against desmogleins in pemphigus, an autoantibody-mediated bullous disorder of the skin. Autoimmun Rev. 2:278–283. 2003. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

2 

Rizzo C, Fotino M, Zhang Y, Chow S, Spizuoco A and Sinha AA: Direct characterization of human T cells in pemphigus vulgaris reveals elevated autoantigen-specific Th2 activity in association with active disease. Clin Exp Dermatol. 30:535–540. 2005. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

3 

Satyam A, Khandpur S, Sharma VK and Sharma A: Involvement of T(H)1/T(H)2 cytokines in the pathogenesis of autoimmune skin disease-Pemphigus vulgaris. Immunol Invest. 38:498–509. 2009. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

4 

Gandhi R: miRNA in multiple sclerosis: Search for novel biomarkers. Mult Scler. 21:1095–1103. 2015. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

5 

Stagakis E, Bertsias G, Verginis P, Nakou M, Hatziapostolou M, Kritikos H, Iliopoulos D and Boumpas DT: Identification of novel microRNA signatures linked to human lupus disease activity and pathogenesis: miR-21 regulates aberrant T cell responses through regulation of PDCD4 expression. Ann Rheum Dis. 70:1496–1506. 2011. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

6 

Churov AV, Oleinik EK and Knip M: MicroRNAs in rheumatoid arthritis: Altered expression and diagnostic potential. Autoimmun Rev. 14:1029–1037. 2015. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

7 

Langkilde A, Raaby L, Johansen C and Iversen L: MicroRNA normalization candidates for quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in real time in lesional and nonlesional psoriatic skin. Br J Dermatol. 169:677–681. 2013. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

8 

Wang M, Liang L, Li L, Han K, Li Q, Peng Y, Peng X and Zeng K: Increased miR-424-5p expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with pemphigus. Mol Med Rep. 15:3479–3484. 2017. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

9 

Shan Y, Li X, You B, Shi S, Zhang Q and You Y: MicroRNA-338 inhibits migration and proliferation by targeting hypoxia-induced factor 1α in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Oncol Rep. 34:1943–1952. 2015. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

10 

Sun J, Feng X, Gao S and Xiao Z: microRNA-338-3p functions as a tumor suppressor in human non-small-cell lung carcinoma and targets Ras-related protein 14. Mol Med Rep. 11:1400–1406. 2015. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

11 

Wang G and Sun Y, He Y, Ji C, Hu B and Sun Y: MicroRNA-338-3p inhibits cell proliferation in hepatocellular carcinoma by target forkhead box P4 (FOXP4). Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 8:337–344. 2015.PubMed/NCBI

12 

Huang N, Wu Z, Lin L, Zhou M, Wang L, Ma H, Xia J, Bin J, Liao Y and Liao W: MiR-338-3p inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition in gastric cancer cells by targeting ZEB2 and MACC1/Met/Akt signaling. Oncotarget. 6:15222–15234. 2015.PubMed/NCBI

13 

Jin Y, Zhao M, Xie Q, Zhang H, Wang Q and Ma Q: MicroRNA-338-3p functions as tumor suppressor in breast cancer by targeting SOX4. Int J Oncol. 47:1594–1602. 2015. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

14 

Li X, Li Z, Yang G and Pan Z: MicroRNA-338-3p suppresses tumor growth of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in vitro and in vivo. Mol Med Rep. 12:3951–3957. 2015. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

15 

Tsuchiya S, Oku M, Imanaka Y, Kunimoto R, Okuno Y, Terasawa K, Sato F, Tsujimoto G and Shimizu K: MicroRNA-338-3p and microRNA-451 contribute to the formation of basolateral polarity in epithelial cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 37:3821–3827. 2009. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

16 

Sun Q, Liu H, Lin H, Yuan G, Zhang L and Chen Z: MicroRNA-338-3p promotes differentiation of mDPC6T into odontoblast-like cells by targeting Runx2. Mol Cell Biochem. 377:143–149. 2013. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

17 

Ebrahimi-Barough S, Massumi M, Kouchesfahani HM and Ai J: Derivation of pre-oligodendrocytes from human endometrial stromal cells using overexpression of microRNA 338. J Mol Neurosci. 51:337–343. 2013. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

18 

Magni S, Comani Buoli G, Elli L, Vanessi S, Ballarini E, Nicolini G, Rusconi M, Castoldi M, Meneveri R, Muckenthaler MU, et al: miRNAs affect the expression of innate and adaptive immunity proteins in celiac disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 109:1662–1674. 2014. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

19 

Pan M, Zhu H and Xu R: Immune cellular regulation on autoantibody production in pemphigus. J Dermatol. 42:11–17. 2015. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

20 

Pobezinskaya YL and Liu Z: The role of TRADD in death receptor signaling. Cell Cycle. 11:871–876. 2012. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

21 

Jin Z and El-Deiry WS: Distinct signaling pathways in TRAIL-versus tumor necrosis factor-induced apoptosis. Mol Cell Biol. 26:8136–8148. 2006. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

22 

Cao X, Pobezinskaya YL, Morgan MJ and Liu ZG: The role of TRADD in TRAIL-induced apoptosis and signaling. FASEB J. 25:1353–1358. 2011. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

23 

Micheau O and Tschopp J: Induction of TNF receptor I-mediated apoptosis via two sequential signaling complexes. Cell. 114:181–190. 2003. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI

Related Articles

Journal Cover

July 2018
Volume 18 Issue 1

Print ISSN: 1791-2997
Online ISSN:1791-3004

Sign up for eToc alerts

Recommend to Library

Copy and paste a formatted citation
APA
Liu, Q., Cui, F., Wang, M., Xiong, H., Peng, X., Liang, L. ... Zeng, K. (2018). Increased expression of microRNA-338-3p contributes to production of Dsg3 antibody in pemphigus vulgaris patients. Molecular Medicine Reports, 18, 550-556. https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2018.8934
MLA
Liu, Q., Cui, F., Wang, M., Xiong, H., Peng, X., Liang, L., Li, L., Zhang, J., Peng, X., Zeng, K."Increased expression of microRNA-338-3p contributes to production of Dsg3 antibody in pemphigus vulgaris patients". Molecular Medicine Reports 18.1 (2018): 550-556.
Chicago
Liu, Q., Cui, F., Wang, M., Xiong, H., Peng, X., Liang, L., Li, L., Zhang, J., Peng, X., Zeng, K."Increased expression of microRNA-338-3p contributes to production of Dsg3 antibody in pemphigus vulgaris patients". Molecular Medicine Reports 18, no. 1 (2018): 550-556. https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2018.8934