Open Access

Immature granulocytes: Innovative biomarker for SARS‑CoV‑2 infection

  • Authors:
    • Vasiliki Epameinondas Georgakopoulou
    • Sotiria Makrodimitri
    • Maria Triantafyllou
    • Stamatia Samara
    • Pantazis M. Voutsinas
    • Amalia Anastasopoulou
    • Chrysovalantis V. Papageorgiou
    • Demetrios A. Spandidos
    • Aikaterini Gkoufa
    • Petros Papalexis
    • Euthalia Xenou
    • Georgios Chelidonis
    • Pagona Sklapani
    • Nikolaos Trakas
    • Nikolaos V. Sipsas
  • View Affiliations

  • Published online on: May 12, 2022     https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2022.12733
  • Article Number: 217
  • Copyright: © Georgakopoulou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License.

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Abstract

Immature granulocytes (IGs) include metamyelocytes, myelocytes and promyelocytes, and are the precursors of neutrophils. Increased IG counts found in peripheral blood indicate an enhanced bone marrow activity. In addition, IGs have been evaluated in numerous clinical conditions, such as severe acute pancreatitis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome and infectious complications following open‑heart surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass. Neutrophils are considered to play a crucial role in the host defense during bacterial and fungal infections, and are involved in the antiviral immune response. Numerous studies have reported the role of neutrophils in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19) infection, concluding that the percentage of neutrophils may be a predictor of the severity of COVID‑19 infection. There has been limited research regarding the role of neutrophil precursors in viral infections, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. The present thus aimed to evaluate the role of the IG count in patients hospitalized due to COVID‑19 infection. The patients were predominantly infected with the alpha variant and were all unvaccinated. The IG count was measured and was found to be associated with disease severity, with patient outcomes, with the duration of hospitalization and with the development of complications. The IG count was a significantly associated with the severity of COVID‑19 infection, with greater IG count values being detected in severe and critical cases. In addition, greater IG count values were associated with a longer duration of hospitalization. Furthermore, the IG count was found to be an independent prognostic biomarker of intubation and mortality in patients with COVID‑19, according to multivariate logistic regression analysis, including age, the male sex and the presence of comorbidities as confounders.

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Spandidos Publications style
Georgakopoulou VE, Makrodimitri S, Triantafyllou M, Samara S, Voutsinas PM, Anastasopoulou A, Papageorgiou CV, Spandidos DA, Gkoufa A, Papalexis P, Papalexis P, et al: Immature granulocytes: Innovative biomarker for SARS‑CoV‑2 infection. Mol Med Rep 26: 217, 2022
APA
Georgakopoulou, V.E., Makrodimitri, S., Triantafyllou, M., Samara, S., Voutsinas, P.M., Anastasopoulou, A. ... Sipsas, N.V. (2022). Immature granulocytes: Innovative biomarker for SARS‑CoV‑2 infection. Molecular Medicine Reports, 26, 217. https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2022.12733
MLA
Georgakopoulou, V. E., Makrodimitri, S., Triantafyllou, M., Samara, S., Voutsinas, P. M., Anastasopoulou, A., Papageorgiou, C. V., Spandidos, D. A., Gkoufa, A., Papalexis, P., Xenou, E., Chelidonis, G., Sklapani, P., Trakas, N., Sipsas, N. V."Immature granulocytes: Innovative biomarker for SARS‑CoV‑2 infection". Molecular Medicine Reports 26.1 (2022): 217.
Chicago
Georgakopoulou, V. E., Makrodimitri, S., Triantafyllou, M., Samara, S., Voutsinas, P. M., Anastasopoulou, A., Papageorgiou, C. V., Spandidos, D. A., Gkoufa, A., Papalexis, P., Xenou, E., Chelidonis, G., Sklapani, P., Trakas, N., Sipsas, N. V."Immature granulocytes: Innovative biomarker for SARS‑CoV‑2 infection". Molecular Medicine Reports 26, no. 1 (2022): 217. https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2022.12733